Category: Automotive

Can rethink American Boost Saturns Sales

Automotive

Analysts are warning that Saturn’s decision to align itself with the flag; mom and apple pie in its latest “Rethink American” campaign may not be an automatic home run.

“They can’t rely on the American idea only, even though, traditionally, [General Motors] being American is a reason why they’ve wanted people to buy their vehicles,” said Alexander Edwards, the president of the auto division at the consultancy Strategic Vision based in San Diego. “That would be like Hyundai only selling vehicles based on the warranty.”

The automakers new campaign flaunting improved Saturn body kits targets import purchasers and was created based on company research. Among other facts, th eGeneral Motors Corp., the parent company, found that the 17-year-old Saturn is still considered a new brand by import owners and intenders. “Which was encouraging,” said Dan Keller, the marketing director at Saturn in Spring Hill, Tenn. “They gave us a whole lot of credit for being different. We don’t have the baggage of a lot of these other domestic car companies… These findings gave us an opportunity to challenge them and rethink what an American car company can be.”

America has been a “sponsor” of other brands. In 2001, Tommy Hilfiger introduced an “Earn your stripes and be a star” contest where filmmakers entered a video demonstrating what the American flag meant to them. Three years after, SABMiller launched an ad campaign that claimed they were running for “president of beers.” The ads called Anheuser-Busch “un-American” for declining to refute them. Anheuser-Busch responded by stating in ads that “Miller was purchased by South African Breweries.” A full-page Budweiser ad that ran in newspapers during the Memorial Day weekend read: “A true American holiday deserves a true American beer – Budweiser.”

A lot of brands have experimented with this ‘American brand’ advertising but the consumer doesn’t seem to care much in many cases,” said J. Walker Smith, the president at marketing research firm Yankelovich Partners in Chapel Hill, N.C. Smith added, Most consumers are buying products largely based on the valuations they make on the brand with regard to the competition in a category. And this whole notion of being American is somewhat beside the point when it comes to the performance of a product.

“It now is taking more that just saying you are American, like the [Ford] Fusion ads that compare the Fusion to the Camry and the Accord,” said Peter DeLorenzo, a former Detroit ad man and now publisher of industry Web site Autoextremist.com. “Those other ‘We’re American’ ads didn’t work because American consumers were not listening. They wanted a good car. I’m not sure that [Rethink American] can get people out of their Toyotas and into a Saturn, but not trying to sway those buyers is a huge mistake. So this [tack of] going at them directly and trying to break the prevailing attitude has to be done.”

Experience While Minimizing Your Car Rental Costs Services

Automotive

When you conceive to take a family automotive trip, there area unit many aspects you want to contemplate. whether or not you already sleep in state capital, Australia or conceive to visit, your 1st thought are your suggests that of travel. This, of course, raises the question of whether or not you oughtto use your automotive or just rent one. If you’re traveling to state capital, you may possibly rent a automotive, as this is able to most likely be the foremost possible and sensible choice.
Sydney, Australia is one in all the foremost traveled cities, giving a wealth of activities bound to please everybody in your family. that’s wherever getting discount automotive rentals will assist you to higher arrange your trip and optimize some time and expenses. Finding such a deal in state capital is each straightforward and economical packers and movers in noida..
It pays to conduct thorough analysis before truly designing your trip. Since you may most likely be payment lots of cash on the varied activities you decide on to require advantage of whereas you’re there, saving cash on your rental can extremely serve you well. the net could be a great spot to begin. several corporations provide websites with info concerning however you’ll be able to save cash and wherever to seem. you may even be ready to realize specific quotes and compare costs from completely different corporations.
Another issue to contemplate is that the location of the corporate you decide on. you wish to may be ready to devour and come the car while not a lot of trouble, therefore this can be another necessary thought. this could conjointly rely on the sights you want to examine, however either manner, there area unit several choices out there to you.
There area unit many discount automotive corporations out there in state capital, therefore finding what you would like shouldn’t be a tangle. there’s conjointly AN array of specialty vehicles that area unit designed to suit varied activities. as an example, if you intend to go for the outback, you’d most likely desire a additional rugged vehicle than if you simply planned to remain in city. Through the net choices, you may be ready to study however your rate are secure, are ready to make sure your reservation each quickly and simply, and select the sort of auto you want to rent whereas in state capital.
If you’re traveling a decent distance to achieve state capital, you may most likely wish to raise concerning any policies regarding changes or cancellations ought to they be necessary. take care to explore all the choices out there to you, and take care in selecting the proper one.
Discount automotive rent state capital has locations throughout state capital and delhi Packers And Movers in noida

Preparing Your Chopper Motorcycle For Painting

Automotive

After buying you custom painting manual guide, tools, paint and equipments, the next job is to dismantle the motorcycle. Start dismantling your chopper motorcycle with utmost accuracy. While dismantling the chopper motorcycle, you should be very careful with wires attached to the motorcycle.

Dismantling chopper motorcycle is not very difficult, if you do it according to the custom painting manual guide. Remove only those parts from motorcycle, which you want to re-paint, as most of the people remove each and every part from the motorcycle and find it difficult to assemble it later. You should remember while dismantling your chopper motorcycle, that you have to assemble it. By using the basic tools kit, you can easily dismantle or assemble your chopper motorcycle. You should collect all the big or small parts of your chopper motorcycle very carefully at the time of dismantling your motorcycle.

Sanding

Sanding is done to remove the old paint from the dismantled parts of chopper motorcycle and to give smooth and silky surface to paint. The process of sanding is done by using sand papers. Generally, there are two types of sand paper used in sanding process of motorcycles, first is rough sandpaper and second is fine sandpaper. Rough sandpaper is used to remove the old paint from the motorcycle and fine sandpaper is used to give smooth surface for the new paint. If the old paint is remain on the motorcycle then it might cause problem with the new paint. Therefore, sanding is very important before you start painting your chopper motorcycle. Never try to avoid sanding because it is very important for the long lasting shine and grace of new paint.

Sanding Your Chopper Motorcycle

Sanding a motorcycle doesnt need any specialized knowledge or skill. You must be careful while choosing the correct thickness of the sand paper (rough sandpaper and fine sandpaper). Sand papers with grit form 600 to 1000 can be used, depending upon the roughness of your chopper motorcycle. 600 grit sand papers are used for the rough surface to remove the old paint. 1000 grit sand papers are used for fine finishing of the motorcycle.

Although sanding is not a specialized job, but you have to be expert in judging the smoothness of the surface on which you are going to paint. When you are going for motorcycle sanding, you should be well prepared, as the people who perform such jobs are regularly exposed to dust (powder of old paint). Chances of getting dust in the eye and throat are very common. Therefore, your must wear the safety equipments. Swallowing these powders sometimes might leads to lung cancer.

For the final finishing of your chopper motorcycle, it is recommended to use 200 grit sanding paper. Smooth and sparkling surface of the motorcycle is the reward of proper sanding. Use 1200 grit wet and dry sand paper if you want to paint a metallic color on your chopper motorcycle.

Chemical Stripper for Sanding

If you find it difficult to remove the old paint of your motorcycle with a sand paper, then you can also use chemical stripper. Apply the paint stripper very carefully all over the motorcycle with a paint brush.

Chemical stripper can affect your skin badly. Therefore, you must wear safety equipments while applying chemical stripper on your chopper motorcycle.

How to Apply Chemical Stripper

You should cover all the parts of your motorcycle, which you want to paint, with clear plastic sheet (available from any hardware shop), so the vapors will be trapped inside and will work more rapidly on the motorcycle. After covering the motorcycle parts with the plastic sheet, than wait for the 2 to 3 hours and remove the plastic sheet.

Now you can start to scrape off the old paint from the motorcycle with a putty knife or a paint scraper. After applying stripping chemical on the motorcycle parts and keep the water away from these parts. If necessary, use the stripping chemical again. Never use the chemical stripper to remove the old paint from the motorcycle part, as it can affect the body (metal) of your chopper motorcycle. Therefore, sanding by sand paper is the best and simple way to remove old paint from motorcycle.

Wash the Parts before You Start Painting

After the sanding process, wash each and every part. Washing is necessary and important to remove the sanding powder which is left after the sanding process. There are some people who jump from sanding directly on to the base coat and might suffer later, as if you start with base coating without washing it, then after completing the first base coat, you will find small particles on it. Therefore, wash gently all the parts before you start painting.

Why Toyota Avanza Bestsellers

Automotive

Looking for first car is like looking for a life partner. You must know the quality. In the car last criterion can be described as brand, price up to the network after sales sevice it. So.. like what is the detail of these criteria?

For your first car, choose a car that has a price to suit your pocket, for the entry level, we recommend the 4×2 low, such as the Toyota Avanza is the right choice. Why?
Toyota Avanza affordable price with features that are quite complete. In addition to VVT-i engine that stubborn, stylish design and a large cabin space, Avanza is also equipped with power windows, power door locks and air conditioner. It would be better if the car brand you choose has a network of funding institutions, it is easier for you to get credit financing institutions.

When buying a car, of course we also must think about the cost of care of the car. Avanza also be the most suitable car for your first car, the Toyota Through regular service every multiple of 10.000 km and also free service costs up to 50,000 km, making the cost of Toyota Avanza care is very affordable.

What about fuel consumption? Despite having a fairly large dimensions, with VVT-i engine, Avanza has a very efficient fuel consumption, matched with first-entry pockets buyer.

Sales service becomes a very important thing, where you as someone who just has a car needs to learn a lot and do not want to be bothered. Let’s look again Toyota, with a clear periodic service programs each multiple of 10,000 km makes Toyota owners, especially first time users of the car has its own serenity. How could I not, with the ease and low cost service that no longer make a fuss consumers. Especially with the service workshops spread throughout Indonesia, you do not have to worry about prior to performing services outside the city.

Along with economic development, perhaps you will sell it back the first car in the future?

Look for cars with big brand name, this will certainly push up the selling price of the car. In addition to quality that is guaranteed of course because many devotees. Toyota Avanza and it has a truly magical price, sale price of Toyota Avanza 2006 in the market is now more expensive a few million of the purchase price. Buying a Toyota Avanza become an investment of your money.

Toyota Avanza become the biggest-selling car immovable for three consecutive years, 2006, 2007 and 2008, beating nearest rivals, Nissan Grand Livina, Daihatsu Xenia, even Toyota Kijang Innova, according to data from the Motor Vehicle Industry Association of Indonesia (Gaikindo). Why Avanza so phenomenal in the eyes of consumers?

Avanza appreciated by the public because it is very suitable as a first car, the quality is excellent, fuel efficient, the price was affordable, and after sales network of Toyota’s strong throughout Indonesia. And another thing, the value of selling the product this one is quite high.

Because some of these advantages, Avanza rising directly into best-selling car in Indonesia. Status of family cars are attached to the Toyota Avanza MPV seven passengers make selling like hotcakes. Even up to age nearly five years to date sales reached 270 thousand units more.

Since first introduced in 2004, Avanza unshakable rule the market, not only in class but also the best-selling cars in Indonesia in recent years. Recognition of the quality of products and services can also be seen from the various awards received, both from media and independent pollsters.

Under conditions in crisis or when fuel prices are rising, demand for Avanza was not disturbed, even customers willing to wait at least 2-3 months to get it. This shows the credibility of the Toyota Avanza which for nearly 5 years of its appearance more and more accepted by society very well. This is also the lead Avanza get a lot of awards from various automotive media in Indonesia.

The superiority of Avanza can also be traced from the used car market. “Every day there is a search for Avanza resale.”, Explained one of the used car showroom owners. Not surprisingly, the Avanza is the most liquid vehicle if a sudden need of funds.

Avanza is phenomenal. New Avanza even selling price is higher than the current mark the purchase price. This is because Avanza fits with the character of Indonesia. In addition, the Avanza is also easy maintenance, efficient, load a lot and have a Toyota brand.

In addition, PT. Toyota Astra Motor also allows users with a regular service program each multiple of 10,000 km to keep the vehicle still excellent and powerful.

For further information about the newest price of this great MPV, please visit Harga Toyota Avanza at Toyota Surabaya Dealer.

How Does Floor Plan Financing Work For Car Dealerships

Automotive

Floor plan financing is a key element of the auto industry in both Canada and the United States . Exactly what is floor plan financing and how does it work?

This type of financing is in effect a short term inventory financing for both new and used car dealerships . Traditionally the floor plan industry was geared towards what we know as franchise dealers, i.e those dealers representing product for the likes of GM, CHRYSLER, FORD, etc .

The financing allows the dealers to carry sufficient inventory to satisfy customer needs and demands re model types, accessories, options, etc . It is an extremely large market in what is of course a multi billion dollar industry .

When floor planning financing works properly it is effective, has a reasonable cost attached to the financing, and is totally transparent to the consumer . As consumers when we drive past auto dealerships, either new or used, we don’t care how the inventory got there, we just know its there for us to examine and purchase .

Floor plan financing is executed on both a small and large basis . It is not unusual for finance firms to use more esoteric finance vehicles such as asset backed commercial paper, Special Investment Vehicles ( commonly called SIV’s ) etc. to finance the billions of dollars of inventory that the industry needs to move product through .

Naturally, whether we are talking about the largest GM dealer in town, or a small used car dealership with multi lines of vehicles there has to be a finance program that can grow and backstop that inventory .

In the Canadian marketplace as an example, with which this writer is more familiar , the independent dealers have as much need as franchise dealers for this valuable type of financing .

We have all read recently that many of the tier one floor plan firms such as GMAC and CHRYSLER CREDIT have withdrawn substantially from the market . This has allowed a number of private firms to enter the market and capitalize on the withdrawal of the ‘ big boys ‘ . Additionally, as the banks perceived the auto market as significantly more risky in the current 2008-2010 economic turmoil they also have scaled bank in their previous focus on floor plan financing for car dealerships .

Finance firms that execute well on floor plan financing initiatives are those that of course properly funded ; they also know how to collateralize the inventory through proper legal documentation and registration. The average term for a car being on the auto lot tends to be within 30-90 days . The floor plan financier registers liens on the vehicle, and when the vehicle is sold that lien is removed . The finance firm of course profits from the ability to charge the dealership interest over that 30-90 day period . Naturally this process repeats itself continuously . Lenders must have reasonable confidence in the financial viability of the dealer, more experienced and financially solvent dealers can naturally command larger floor planning facilities . Dealers also are subject to rigorous audits of the inventory . The lender wants to know the car is still there and hasn’t been sold and not paid for of course! Therefore VIN ( vehicle identification numbers ) are checked regularly by finance company personnel , insurance is validated, and random inspections are common

Overall the auto floor plan facility is a key aspect of the automotive market , and is a significant benefit to both new an car dealers alike .

Centennial College Offers Automotive Service Technician Honda Canada Inc

Automotive

In today’s competitive job market, employers are seeking to hire graduates that are highly specialized and well trained. You can’t afford to waste your time with an education that wont help you get the job you want. At Centennial College, all our programs are geared for success.

As part of your program, you will not only learn how to use the latest cutting edge tools, but you will also learn how to apply the latest principles from business professionals. To compliment your classroom learning, you will also get hands-on experience in the labs.

Centennial’s staff not only believe in providing students with the best teaching experience possible, but also to offer the best guidance and career advice.

Overview:

Every eight weeks, students in this Acura/ Honda Apprenticeship Program (AHAP) alternate between the College and their employer for a total of 64 weeks (32 weeks with each).

The Honda Technician Training provided is on Hondas latest technology, with an emphasis on electronics and the diagnosing of mechanical systems. All aspects of vehicle technology are embodied in the program. This program is designed to make you as immediately productive in the shop as possible.

Upon successful completion, you will complete your on-the-job experience with your Acura/ Honda employer.

Admission Requirements:

Centennial College requires students applying to Modified Apprenticeship Programs to present at minimum:

*OSSD or GED or equivalent
*Non-academic requirements as specified

Non-academic Requirements

*Applicant must be employed by a Honda Canada Inc.dealership or selected through an interview process

Notes:

*Candidates may apply directly to Centennial College. Please visit centennialcollege.ca for an application form and details. Successful applicants must obtain an employer and then register as a MAP apprentice with the Apprenticeship Branch of the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities.
*Acceptance is based on successful completion of all entry requirements. Limited space is available in each program.

Get more information about Technician Honda at centennialcollege.ca

What Is The Best Automotive Advertising Method

Automotive

The automotive industry is one of the most lucrative ventures today. This holds true most specially with the auto repair shop business now that the economy is in a recession. People are holding off their plans to upgrade their old vehicles with new ones, and instead opt to have these old cars repaired. And with this demand on a rise, auto repair shops have no way but up in terms of profitability. However, competition is getting tougher as more and more shops are being opened on a daily basis only to tap the growing market. How can you make sure that your auto repair shop remains on top of the game?

The answer to this need will be to provide your shop the right advertising scheme that will drive in sales ultimately. With so many kinds of advertising medium, which one is clearly the most effective for an auto shop business? Direct mail advertising is the best marketing scheme for automotive industry. It is cost-efficient and targets the right customers for your shop. With these factors, any auto repair shop owners must understand that in order to compete for more customers will be to let these car owners know of your business and the services you offer through a direct mail.

Shop owners must not consider direct mail as an expense but rather an avenue for profits. The only way to achieve this goal of achieving more revenue will be to create the most effective direct mail. And the best way to accomplish having an effective direct mail will be to hire the right people to do the job. Automotive advertising experts will help you create the most effective direct mail and at the same time, efficiently deliver these mails to the right market. It is not just about giving away mails; it is about giving the right mail to the right prospects. With the help of a reliable automotive advertising company, you will not only give out the best direct mails, but these mails will result to more sales.

Automotive Seo & Internet Marketing For Automobile Industries

Automotive

Automotive Internet Marketing is highly essential if you want to increase sales and services to create a potentially successful online presence. SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is a highly competitive arena in a lot of major industries and thus making it extremely tough for companies to scale the ladder in the search engine optimization on Google, Yahoo, Bing and MSN. There is an immense opportunity for automotive dealerships to hit the competition through actively marketing their websites using a strategic SEO campaign to gain more visibility in online business directories for ratings and reviews.

To start you can just do a simple online search to see where your company is ranked in the competition by using a couple of the key words you want to rank in. After a few test searches, check how your company is ranking in those key words. This will help you to clearly understand your online local ranking as its compared to your competition. If your company is atop the search results, its a good thing, but note that a constant Automotive SEO campaign is a must to keep your standings strong. Its also a plus to make changes to your existing site frequently so your content is fresh. If your company is not listed high in the search results or listed in the lower pages, then it is safe to say that an Automotive Internet Marking SEO strategy and marketing plan needs to be in place to get you in the top rankings.

You dont want your competition stealing your customers from right underneath you, do you? Well then an Automotive SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION (SEO) should be an integral part of every automotive marketing strategy, and it’s imperative that your dealership has a monthly strategy and marketing plan. We can help your dealership, whether big or small reach new platforms in innovative SEO solutions. HOW MUCH DOES INTERNET MARKETING COST? Its a question we get often and that is why we provide you Automotive INTERNET MARKETING PRICING packages and a la carte services to fit your budget. We have Internet Marketing packages for all ranges of budgets and can even customize packages to fit your automotive dealership needs.

Our Automotive Search Engine Optimization packages consist of SEO Fundamental, Google Safe strategies, start up, social media, and budget packages. Our Automotive Search Engine Optimization A la Carte programs consist of Press Release writing and distribution, Video Distribution, Blog promotion, Article writing and submission services, Social media branding, Website directory submissions, and local search.

How Automotive Windshields Are Repaired

Automotive

Broken automotive windshields are no laughing matter. The term broken can be used lightly in some situations, and not so lightly in others. A broken windshield is considered to be a windshield that has a chip, crack, or spider web appearing crack within it. Damaged automotive glass can be a serious issue. If you do not get the problem rectified immediately, it can make it impossible for you to be able to operate your vehicle.

Even tiny dings that appear on this area of your vehicle can turn into larger problems down the road. When these small dings start to grow, they can block out your vision, which makes operating your vehicle a hazard in itself. Windshield replacement can help you fix a broken car windshield. Replacements are not the only solution to your problem though.

Smaller flaws that have not grown to be bigger messes can be rectified with simple repairs. These repairs can help you restore the strength of your vehicles glass, and help you avoid having to have this entire portion of your vehicle replaced down the line. Understanding the way that these repair services are carried out, will give you a general idea of what you can expect, if your vehicles windshield ever becomes damaged.

One of the first things that a repair service will do before fixing the problem is perform an evaluation of the damage. The repair personnel will examine the simple chip or crack. They will determine the size of the crack, and also look at the depth of it as well. Location is also a major factor that has to be considered when fixing this portion of your vehicle.

A lot of smaller flaws that are made to automotive windshields can be fixed by applying a resin to the surface of the chip or crack, and allowing it to dry. Be aware, that the only time that a repair service will use a resin to fix a chip or a crack that appears along your vehicles windshield is if the bottom layer of your glass has not been damaged.

Most of the modern day windshields that are placed on cars are made up of two glass layers. In between these two layers, there is a laminated rubber membrane. Resin repair services will only be able to fix damages that do not surpass the rubber membrane layer of your windshield. In the event that both layers of the part are damaged, you will need to look into having this entire portion of your vehicle replaced, as opposed to just having to patched up a little bit.

Some cracks that appear along the outer perimeter of your vehicles windshield can also be difficult to correct with a simple resin layer repair. Therefore, before hiring a repair service to fix your issue, it is important that you evaluate the state of the damage first. Be aware, that most companies that offer repairs will offer full replacements of the product as well. However, there are some companies that offer repairs that do not offer replacement services. Therefore, it is up to you to determine what type of service you believe you may require.

After you have personally determined that the only thing that needs to be done to your windshield is a simple repair, the repair process is fairly easy. A typical repair job will take about thirty minutes to complete. Using a special type of sunlight cured resin; the repair person will inject the epoxy onto the area that is cracked.

They will use special tools during the application process, in order to ensure that the repair is going to suffice. The tools that are used are designed to fix cracks and chips that do not pass the first layer of glass on the part. After the resin is applied to the area, you will need to wait a few minutes for the substance to dry, before using your vehicle.

The good thing about the resin is it dries clear. This will make it appear like there was never anything wrong with the product. The clear drying resin will match the remaining portion of your vehicles windshield. The sunlight is what is used to dry the resin, after it has been applied. Therefore, you will not have to do anything additional after having a repair service performed on this area of your vehicle. There are not a lot of people that realize how significant automotive windshields are, until they are forced to repair this portion of their vehicles. A broken windshield will make you a hazard on the road, aside from that it will ruin the beauty of your vehicle.

BMW X6-Either You Love It Or Hate It

Automotive

BMW X6-Either You Love It Or Hate It

The BMW X6 is the third in BMWs X line up. The concept car was shown in 2007 in Frankfurt Motor Show and the production followed the March next year. The X6 is a coupe-SUV -based on the X5- with a sleek style and fun drive but it has limited off road ability. There are options of two diesel and three petrol engines. Diesel engines are better with X6 40d giving the best balance of performance and fuel consumption. The X6 boosts a “love it or hate it” design which is not everyones bread and butter. This might be the only car having so many different buyer opinions. From the bottom it looks just like the X5, while above the waistline, is a coupe with a shallow glass area and sleek roof making it a Sports Activity Coupe as BMW calls it. 19 inch alloys and xenon headlamps come as standard across all models.

There is no doubt that the petrol engines return an excellent performance but they prove very costly to run, the diesel engines are better in the sense that they give similar figures of performance at comparatively low running costs. The basic 30d does the 0-62mph in 7.5secs which results in easy overtaking on the road. The 40d does the same in 6.5secs and the range topping M50D gives 0-62mph in jus5.3secs. X6 has very agile drive for its size, weight and height. It handles very well on sharp turns and corners. The X6 has a incredible road grip thanks to the Dynamic Performance control technology that adjusts the torque across each axle.

The BMW X6 has not be tested for Euro NCAP rating yet but it sure can get five stars when put through the test. It comes with a decent amount of safety feature that include ten airbags, electronic stability control, Isofix child seat anchors and tyre pressure monitor. The engines that and technology that power X6 have already been tried and tested in other BMW models and no major issues reported. All of these increase the drivers confidence in driving X6. Though the BMW X6 is a bulky car, still there are only two individual seats at the back making it a strict four seater.

It boasts a decent 570 litres of boot space and underneath there is a storage space for items you dont want others to see. The rear visibility is poor but parking sensors make up for it and come as standard across the range. Going for a diesel engine surprisingly lowers the running costs, the 35i is the most efficient petrol returning 28.0mpg with 236g/km of carbon emissions. On the other hand even the biggest culprit in diesels the M50d does 36.7mpg with CO2 emissions at 204g/km. Insuring the X6 will always be expensive but BMW offers a Service Inclusive deal for just 400 that covers the vehicle for five years or 60,000 miles whichever comes first.

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